With its ratification by the European Union, the agreement received enough contracting parties to enter into force on 4 November 2016. Recognizing that many developing countries and small island states that have contributed the least to climate change could suffer the most from its consequences, the Paris Agreement includes a plan for developed countries – and others that are “able to do so” – to continue to provide funds to help developing countries mitigate and increase their resilience to climate change. The agreement builds on financial commitments from the 2009 Copenhagen Accord, which aimed to increase public and private climate finance for developing countries to $100 billion a year by 2020. (To put this in perspective, global military spending in 2017 alone amounted to about $1.7 trillion, more than a third of which came from the United States.) The Copenhagen Compact also created the Green Climate Fund to help mobilize transformative financing with targeted public funds. The Paris Agreement set hope that the world would set a higher annual target by 2025 to build on the $100 billion target for 2020 and put in place mechanisms to achieve that scale. The authors of the agreement have built a timetable for withdrawal, which President Trump must follow – and prevent it from irreparably harming our climate. Both the EU and its Member States are individually responsible for ratifying the Paris Agreement. A strong preference has been expressed for the EU and its 28 Member States to deposit their instruments of ratification at the same time to ensure that neither the EU nor its Member States commit to commitments that strictly belong to each other, and there are concerns that there will be disagreement on each Member State`s share of the EU-wide reduction target – as well as the UK`s vote. in favor of leaving the EU could undermine the Paris Delay the Pact.
 However, the European Parliament approved the ratification of the Paris Agreement on 4 October 2016 and the EU deposited its instruments of ratification on 5 October 2016 with several EU Member States.  From 30 November to 11 November. In December 2015, the France hosted representatives from 196 countries at the United Nations Climate Change Conference, one of the largest and most ambitious global climate conferences ever held. The goal was nothing less than a binding, universal agreement that would limit greenhouse gas emissions to levels that would prevent global temperatures from rising more than 2°C (3.6°F) above the temperature scale set before the start of the Industrial Revolution. In fact, research clearly shows that the costs of climate inaction far outweigh the costs of reducing carbon pollution. A recent study suggests that if the United States fails to meet its Paris climate goals, it could cost the economy up to $6 trillion in the coming decades. A global failure to meet the NDCs currently set out in the agreement could reduce global GDP by more than 25% by the end of the century. At the same time, another study estimates that meeting – or even exceeding – the Paris targets through infrastructure investments in clean energy and energy efficiency could have huge global benefits – around $19 trillion. Since Trump`s announcement that U.S.
envoys have continued to participate in U.N. climate negotiations as necessary to solidify the details of the deal. Meanwhile, thousands of leaders across the country have stepped in to fill the void created by the lack of federal climate leadership, reflecting the will of the vast majority of Americans who support the Paris Agreement. Among city and state leaders, business leaders, universities, and individuals, there has been a wave of participation in initiatives such as America`s Pledge, the U.S. Climate Alliance, We Are Still In, and the American Cities Climate Challenge. Complementary and sometimes overlapping movements aim to deepen and accelerate efforts to combat climate change at local, regional and national levels. Each of these efforts is focused on the U.S. working toward the goals of the Paris Agreement, despite Trump`s attempts to steer the country in the opposite direction. The general scientific opinion is that any increase in global temperatures of more than 2 degrees Celsius would be catastrophic for the Earth – leading to severe natural disasters, a melted Arctic and possible mass extinctions. When the entire planet is in danger, it takes the whole world to fight climate change. The ultimate goal of the agreement is to limit the increase in global warming this century to 1.5 degrees Celsius.
Although the difference of 0.5 degrees may not seem like much, it would significantly affect low-lying nations and coral reefs. It is rare that there is consensus among almost all nations on a single issue. But with the Paris Agreement, world leaders agreed that climate change is driven by human behavior, that it poses a threat to the environment and all of humanity, and that global action is needed to stop it. A clear framework has also been put in place for all countries to make commitments to reduce emissions and strengthen these measures over time. Here are some key reasons why the agreement is so important: By February 2020, all UNFCCC members had signed the agreement and 189 had become parties. The signatories that have not become parties are: the president`s promise to renegotiate the international climate agreement has always been a smog screen, the oil industry has a red phone inside, and will Trump bring food trucks to Old Faithful? On 4 November 2019, the United States notified the depositary of its withdrawal from the Agreement, which is to take effect exactly one year after that date.  On June 1, 2017, U.S. President Donald Trump announced that the U.S. would withdraw from the agreement.
 According to Article 28, the earliest possible effective withdrawal date for the United States is November 4, 2020, with the agreement having entered into force in the United States on November 4, 2016. If it had chosen to withdraw from the UNFCCC, it could be notified immediately (the UNFCCC entered into force for the United States in 1994) and enter into force a year later. On August 4, 2017, the Trump administration sent an official notice to the United Nations stating that the United States intended to withdraw from the Paris Agreement as soon as it was legally allowed to do so.  The formal resignation could not be submitted until the agreement was in force for the United States for 3 years in 2019.   Unlike the Kyoto Protocol, which sets legally binding emission reduction targets (as well as sanctions for non-compliance) only for developed countries, the Paris Agreement requires all countries – rich, poor, developed and developing countries – to do their part and reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. To this end, greater flexibility is built into the Paris Agreement: it does not include language in the commitments that countries should make, countries can voluntarily set their emission targets (NDCs) and countries are not penalized if they do not meet the proposed targets. What the Paris Agreement requires, however, is monitoring, reporting, and reassessing countries` individual and collective goals over time in order to bring the world closer to the broader goals of the agreement. And the agreement stipulates that countries must announce their next set of targets every five years – unlike the Kyoto Protocol, which aimed at that target but did not contain a specific requirement to achieve it. The Paris Agreement is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that addresses mitigation, adaptation to greenhouse gas emissions and financing from 2020 onwards.
The agreement aims to address the threat of global climate change by keeping a global temperature increase this century well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and making efforts to further limit the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius.  As a contribution to the objectives of the agreement, countries have submitted comprehensive Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). These are not yet sufficient to meet the agreed temperature targets, but the agreement points the way for further action. The agreement recognises the role of non-party actors in the fight against climate change, including cities, other sub-national authorities, civil society, the private sector and others. The Kyoto Protocol, a landmark environmental treaty adopted at COP3 in Japan in 1997, is the first time that countries have agreed on country-specific emission reduction targets that are legally mandated. The protocol, which only entered into force in 2005, set binding emission reduction targets only for developed countries, based on the assumption that they were responsible for most of the Earth`s high greenhouse gas emissions. .